Terania 40 years on: the forest battle continues

Eve Jeffery

We did not seek permission to re-post but consider it ‘fair use’ to re-post in full and credit the original source. Please get in touch if you are the original author and would like the post altered or taken down -The Editors

Nan, Hugh & Terri Nicholson are still advocating for trees. Photo Tree Faerie.

In September 1974, a young couple, Hugh and Nan Nicholson, bought an abandoned farm at the end of Terania Creek Road adjoining Whian Whian State Forest, about 80 miles south of Brisbane, New South Wales.

They didn’t know what lay ahead. Their plan was to start a specialist rainforest nursery. They were pioneers in the propagation and extensive use of rainforest plants in gardens and in reforestation on degraded lands, and they had made The Channon their home.

The Nicholsons in 1979. Photo David Kemp.

Their dream was coming to fruition when in January 1975 they discovered the Forestry Commission planned to log the area within the next few years and convert the rainforest to a eucalypt plantation.

From then until January 1979 when it was announced that logging would commence within the next few months, Hugh and Nan spearheaded a movement to stop the destruction of the forest.

The Channon Residents’ Group became Terania Native Forest Action Group (TNFAG) and when their voices would not be heard, TNFAG commenced a media campaign. There were stories on Nationwide, in The Sydney Morning Herald and The Australian.

The fight begins

In early August the Nicholsons made an appeal at the Channon Market to prevent the logging. Within the next five days 300 people were gathered at the Nicholsons’ property. Cars moved into position in the valley to begin peaceful vigilance. They planned to stop logging until an EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) was in place.

On August 16, a bulldozer and two Forestry trucks arrived. The first bulldozer was met by 200 protesters singing and chanting, playing guitars, drums and other instruments. One hundred and twenty police were sent to maintain order.

The next day, tow trucks, five paddy wagons and 20 police cars with 108 police arrived. They started removing vehicles from the blockade. A bulldozer began clearing the old logging road into the forest.

There were 17 arrests, but the media coverage was unprecedented – the story was national news – and so began the end.

It’s too simple to say that was that – it wasn’t. A lot happened on both sides of the fight for months afterwards, and today there are still scars in the community and the town, the residue of what happened, but in the end the efforts of the protesters paid off, and after a prolonged fight on the right side of history, Premier Neville Wran called a halt to the logging on September 4, 1979.

He established a fact-finding committee with Len Webb (CSIRO), John Whitehouse, Marilyn Fox (National Herbarium) and Lorraine Cairns (NPWS) accompanying them on the visit.

The Committee recommended that logging be suspended and the rest, as they say, is history.

Terania Creek was a landmark environmental protest.

The protest was the first time citizens physically defended a rainforest by placing themselves in front of police and loggers, the dawn of an entire new generation of forest activists and environmental defenders. People have moved to the area just to be near this place of victory and hope.

Some say it was this fight that lit the fire in the belly of protesters on the Franklin and certainly during the Northern Rivers’ fight against CSG mining at Glenugie, Doubtful Creek and Bentley. Terania Creek was a beacon from the past guiding the battle from its place in history.

A forest to capture the imagination

In 1979 David Kemp, a keen amateur photographer, arrived in the area and was captivated by the beauty of the Terania forest. He was appalled at the possibility of it being lost, and determined to join the protest with his young family. David pulled out his camera and spent the best part of a month capturing images of an unfolding drama. David, who had moved to the area from South Australia, had an Olympus OM2 with a 200mm lens with a 2X converter.

“I was living at Coorabell and at that stage we could drive up from Mullum, through Huonbrook, up over what is now the Nightcap and down Mackays Road, so it was quite a quick drive to get over there.

I was doing the markets at The Channon at the time when Hugh got up to speak about the imminent logging. So I drove out and saw this incredible rainforest. Some of the trees were dated at 1200 years old. They were just giants, they should never have been logged.”

David says to take time out for his work and family was a big deal back then:

’To give up your life – it’s quite a big commitment, but heaps of people did it and just camped there. It was a seminal moment. It changed my life.

David says when he was taking the photos, he had no idea how important they would be.

David Kemp and Rhoda Roberts. Photo Tree Faerie.

‘It was just the only talent I had to offer. I had a good camera. I had very fast black and white film and I just snapped away. I got these wonderful shots. Intimate and personal shots. To someone from conservative Adelaide, it was such a mind blowing change to my comfort zone.

David says he was one of a group of photographers who pooled their resources:

“At the end of the day we handed in all our film and it was developed on-site up the valley and we were given more film. Of the 800 or so images, about 300 were mine.

I just did what I was good at and I eventually got tapped on the shoulder by Detective Sergeant Campbell.

I got arrested and taken into Lismore in the paddy wagon.”

On Friday the Lismore Regional Gallery opened the first exhibitions for the year – one of which is entitled The Terania Creek Protest

David approached the gallery in early 2018 about the exhibition saying he was interested in an exhibition in 2019, to coincide with the 40th Anniversary of the Terania Creek Protest. ‘The photographs are captivating and we well knew the local and national importance of this landmark event. We jumped at the chance,’ says Lismore Gallery curator Kezia Geddes.

Ms Geddes says that the Lismore Regional Gallery has done several exhibitions over the years that look at the history of the region. ‘We see them as crucial not only to celebrating the history of the region, but also in making sure these stories are told and research expanded on into the future,’ she says. ‘David Kemp has been very kind to donate his photographs in the exhibition to the gallery.

‘We are so grateful to him for providing us access to these images that capture the time and which are an important local, historical resource.

Kezia Geddes, curator at the Lismore Gallery says that the photos are crucial not only to celebrating the history of the region, but also in making sure these stories are told. Hilary McPherson translated to sign. Photo Tree Faerie

The opening of the exhibition was held last Friday and attracted a large and buoyant crowd. ‘There were three generations there; protestors, the children of protestors, and their children,’ said Kezia. ‘You always know an exhibition has touched a sweet spot when you get a crowd like that.

‘The Terania Veterans have always been brilliant networkers.

‘The protest began when word was spread at the Channon markets on 12 Aug 1979 to meet at the Nicholson’s property for a non-violent direct action to protect Terania from logging.

‘For the opening and exhibition, word was spread through Facebook, Instagram, email and good old-fashioned word of mouth, and the community came out to see the show.’ Kezia says it was brilliant to see so many people who were involved with the protest at the opening.

‘It is important to work with the community on an exhibition like this one and we collaborated with David Kemp, Hugh and Nan Nicholson, and Michael Murphy to bring this exhibition together.

‘They were so generous with their time and knowledge. All were very involved the protest, with the Nicholsons and Michael Murphy working to stop logging for five years – while also balancing the many other priorities of their lives.

‘Many people devoted time to the protest. There were letters, submissions, talks, appointments, phone calls, and expenses. Local Aboriginal custodians were approached as well as bureaucrats, scientists, politicians and media representatives.

‘The success of an exhibition like this is hinged on community consultation, so the story that is told is one that rings true to those who were involved and word about it is passed through this community.’

Rhoda Roberts. Photo Tree Faerie.

Don’t call them hippies

Local woman Rhoda Roberts opened the exhibition with a passionate speech about the people her father Frank Roberts Jnr, told her not to call ’hippies’. Rhoda says that when free selection occurred, a lot of the Bundjalung people stayed on and worked for the local farmers. ‘As the dairy industry decreased, we saw a lot of people coming into Nimbin, especially in the early 70s.’

Rhoda says her father would go out and greet them and talk with them and he realised they were very different. ‘Dad said the young people were really wanting to protect country and they understood the psychology that Aboriginal people had for the land.’

Rhoda says at the time her father (and now she herself) was very grateful for the part the Nicholsons and the other blockaders played in saving the forest. ‘That was how dad saw them. They were beside us. Side-by-side was dad’s thing.’

Rhoda says there is a special connection in having the photos and other memorabilia at the gallery. ‘Having the exhibition on this place here which was known as Tuckurimba, and knowing that our land had been protected by strangers, who wanted to work with us, and to take the children out there to see the rainforest remnants, I mean, it’s gold.’

Hugh and Nan still fighting for trees

Everyone was happy to see Hugh and Nan Nicholson at the opening. The couple who have lived in the area for forty-five years are often considered the mother and father of environmental protesting.

‘We didn’t expect to be recognised after 40 years, so that’s a good feeling,’ says Nan. ‘But we are so aware that we haven’t stopped fighting yet. This is just the start.’

Nan says that her fighting days are not yet over.

‘It was a great victory 40 years ago, but we are more in trouble now than we were then with our forests.

‘Even this week people are out in the forest stopping logging. It’s high conservation value koala habitat, recognised as old growth. It should be saved. People are on the line now trying to stop it from happening. You can never give up.

‘We will always get engaged. What’s really giving me courage now is that there are a lot more young people involved. It makes you think, ok, we can win this. But, gee it’s a hard road. After all this time I would have hoped that we would have been a bit more secure. I know a lot of things are getting reversed, but I feel like with a lot of new blood coming in, we’re really up for the battle. So, we’ll keep going.’

Nan

Hugh says that there are plenty of people to be thanked for their conservation efforts in the area. ’Terania Creek’s got the name, it was sort of the first fight, but it was the Mount Nardi fight a couple of years later, that’s when the government finally made changes and the rainforest policy came in.

‘So if it hadn’t been for Mount Nardi, we wouldn’t have gotten the national parks. The people who fought for that haven’t had the same recognition we’ve had, but they were vitally important.’

The Nicholsons are now looking toward the election for changes to be made. ’I think it’s a watershed moment and people are starting to grasp that climate change is here and you have to vote accordingly,’ says Nan. ‘You can’t muck around any more with people who think it’s not happening. I think there will be major changes this time.’

Lismore Galley and The Quad. Photo Tree Faerie.

A beautiful and moving exhibition

The Nicholsons say the exhibition is very beautiful and very moving. ‘I am so aware that if we hadn’t had David Kemp, the photographer, we would have basically had no record,’ says Nan. ‘It’s so different now when everyone has their phones, which is wonderful.

Nan and Hugh do have advice for the younger people coming up.

‘My advice is just get involved,’ says Nan. ‘It’s easy to get overwhelmed by the facts. The facts are so dire, but if you do nothing, then you’ve got low self esteem to cope with as well. If you get involved, you can at least feel ok about yourself if nothing else. And when you win the feeling is so euphoric it makes everything worthwhile. And even if you don’t win, it’s still worth doing anyway.

‘So I just say, cause trouble whenever you can, because it’s so important, and that’s the secret of joy.

Hugh also has advice for the would be protester. ‘Just don’t give up.’

‘I hope to be an example for all the people here that you can fight,’ says Nan. ‘You can win, and hopefully we will win this next battle because we are really heading into difficult times now.’

In January this year, the Terania Creek forest blockaders won the 2019 Australia Day Award for ‘Services in the Community (Group)’ for their pioneering efforts to save a pristine rainforest.

An exhibition of photographs by David and other photographers who documented the action – The Terania Creek Protest –  is on at the Lismore Regional Gallery until April 7, 2019.


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Getting the measure of wildfires in Australia

atmosphere.copernicus.eu

We did not seek permission to re-post but consider it ‘fair use’ to re-post in full and credit the original source. Please get in touch if you are the original author and would like the post altered or taken down -The Editors.


Devastating wildfires have been burning across large areas of Australia and Tasmania for several weeks. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), implemented by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) on behalf of the European Union, monitors emissions from such wildfires in order to estimate how dangerous they may be in terms of atmospheric pollution.

This January has been the warmest on record in Australia, and one of the driest compared to the 1981-2010 average. In addition, the country has suffered from record-breaking heatwaves.

Surface temperature anomaly - January
Surface air temperature anomaly for January 2019 relative to the January average for the period 1981-2010. Source: ERA-Interim. (Credit: Copernicus Climate Change Service, ECMWF)

Throughout January, rainfall was below average for Australia as a whole; and the daily total Fire Radiative Power (FRP), a measure of heat output from wildfires, was much higher than usual for Western Australia. For several weeks from mid-January Tasmania experienced numerous fires with smoke plumes visible in satellite images crossing the Tasman Sea as far as New Zealand and beyond.

Plume of organic matter aerosol optical depth
The plume of organic matter aerosol optical depth from bushfires in Tasmania at 18UTC on 30 January 2019. (Credit: Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, ECMWF)

Although Tasmania avoided the extreme heat of mainland Australia, it still endured its warmest and driest January on record. Throughout the month, the Fire Weather Index, which takes into account numerous variables, including wind speed and precipitation, showed large areas of concern. Levels remained at moderate to extreme for the whole month across much of the state, and ignition sources such as dry lightning led to numerous bushfires, exacerbated by their remote locations and periods of strong winds.

Fire Weather Indices
Fire Weather Indices from 4 January and 29 January, showing fire activity. (Credit:  Copernicus Emergency Management Service)

The island state experienced ongoing devastation and threat of fire for many days, clearly shown in the chart below, which compares the daily total FRP throughout the month with the 2003-2018 average daily total for the same dates.

Time series of daily total Fire Radiative Power (FRP)
Time series of daily total Fire Radiative Power (FRP) from fires in Tasmania in January and February 2019. (Credit: Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, ECMWF)

Fire forecasting can be complicated, as there are many variables to take into consideration. For example, regions which are experiencing drought, low humidity and high wind speed score highly on the Fire Weather Index. However, there is no global system providing associated information on vegetation; if there is no fuel, there can be no fire. Currently, local knowledge helps identify regions at risk.

While wildfires themselves cause relatively short-term levels of danger, the effects of smoke pollution can have serious long-term effects. CAMS Senior Scientist Mark Parrington, who researches wildfire emissions and their impacts, says:

Hundreds of thousands of hectares of land across Tasmania have been affected by these fires and the resulting smoke contains pollutants. CAMS forecasts the spread of these emissions, which can have serious impacts on health as well as on atmospheric composition.”

Australia is relatively isolated, so the effects have only been felt locally. However, smoke plumes from wildfires in other areas of the globe, such as Siberia, have been seen to spread across the globe. More information can be found through the CAMS Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) webpage.

Statement of Defence used in Exeter Magistrates Courts 29/1/19

Statement from Matthew Tehanu who on 29th January appeared at Exeter Magistrates Courts over his defacing of the Exeter branch of Barclays bank on 2nd January of this year, with the slogan ‘Frack Off’ and the ‘#XR’ hashtag.

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‘The magistrates and court officials gave me plenty of time to explain and justify my actions, for which I am grateful. I strongly hope that this information will inspire XR activists who are considering arrestable direct action. Winning the hearts and minds of magistrates and court officials could be a key element of our peaceful fight, as we increase the intensity and frequency of arrests over the coming months to address global governmental inaction on the accelerating sixth mass extinction event on Earth.
The following is a slightly adapted and extended version of the defence I gave in court. I refused legal representation:
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1) Whilst admitting the offence of criminal damage, Barclays commits the greater crime by their investment in Third Energy, the fracking company. The people of northern England have clearly stated that they do not want Third Energy fracking in their neighbourhoods. Additionally, studies in the USA have shown that fracking pollutes water supplies and creates unaccounted-for leaks in the methane infrastructure of fracking (including pipelines) which contribute to climate breakdown.
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2) Climate breakdown is accelerating globally. This month, yet more high temperature records were broken in Australia. Climate breakdown and species extinction have a relationship of mutual reinforcement as proven by scientific studies, i.e. they form a positive feedback loop. Any corporations which are invested in unnecessary industries which are democratically unpopular and polluting of water, which is essential to all life, as well as contributing to climate breakdown by methane release, must be legally enforced against immediately. Where governments fail to do this, citizens have a moral duty to use non-violent direct action and mass civil disobedience to protect their countries from the starvation that is increasingly likely from food-ecosystem collapse. By conservative estimates we have ten years to reduce carbon emissions to zero to avoid mass starvation, including in the UK, from food-ecosystem collapse.
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I received a Conditional Discharge for a period of 12 months with immediate costs of £110. The costs will be paid by XR Exeter, for which I’m very grateful.
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I publicly intend to breach these conditions in April during international XR actions, as the future of life on Earth depends on it.’
– Matthew T.

COMING SOON – THE HEAT THAT KILLS IN HOURS

By Bill McGuire (ex-IPCC scientist writing exclusively for XR Blog)

Here in the UK, with snow drifting down and the papers full of warnings of the imminent arrival of ‘the beast from the east’ – the bitterly cold weather pattern that brings the worst of winter weather – it is hard to imagine that elsewhere on the planet temperatures are soaring to dangerous levels. A world away from the frost and icy wind, Australia is in the grip of an unprecedented heatwave. Last week, temperatures across much of the country topped 40°C and, in many places breached 45°C. A few days ago, at Port Augusta in South Australia, the temperature peaked at a record-shattering 48.9°C. Probably most astonishing is the record overnight temperature, which – at Noona in New South Wales – fell to just 35.9°C; an all-time record for the country. I have always thought of Australia as essentially a desert with a few green bits around the outside. The prospects for the country on Hothouse Earth are bleak, so it is particularly ironic that successive governments have proved to be some of the least climate-friendly on the planet.

The scorching temperatures down under are likely to be just the advance guard of what may well be Planet Earth’s hottest year ever. With a new El Niño looking to build across the Pacific – a phenomenon that acts to boost global temperatures as well as supercharge extreme weather – 2019 is widely predicted to be hotter than each of the last three years which, themselves, make up the three hottest on record. As a consequence, heatwaves are likely to be widespread – as they were in 2018. Last year saw unprecedented heat across four continents, especially in July, when more than 3,000 daily high temperature records and 55 all-time highs were shattered.

It hardly takes an Einstein to appreciate that heatwaves will become one of the most damaging, disruptive and lethal hazards as the world continues to heat up. According to the University of Hawaii’s Camilo Mora, one of the authors of a study published last year in Nature Climate Change, when it comes to future heatwaves ‘our options are now between bad and terrible.’ What this means is that, even if we slash greenhouse gas emissions dramatically, by the end of the century nearly half the world will experience deadly heatwaves. If we take no effective action, then three-quarters of our planet’s population will be under threat.

Furthermore, the nature of the worst future heatwaves will be very different from those currently baking Australia and that scorched much of the world in 2018, and their impact potentially catastrophic. As global temperatures continue to ramp up, a deadly conspiracy of heat and humidity, measured by the so-called ‘wet-bulb’ temperature, will bring about murderous heatwaves from which there can be no relief and no escape. When the wet-bulb temperature reaches 35°C, the combination of heat and humidity is such that losing heat through sweating is impossible for the human body. In such circumstances anyone without access to air conditioning – however young or fit – has only six or so hours to live, whether sheltering in the shade or not. Research (1,2) reveals that as the century progresses – and under a business as usual scenario – more and more of the planet will come under severe threat from such devastating heat, in particular the Middle East, South and South East Asia and China. Ground zero looks like being China’s northern plain where – today – four hundred million people toil in the country’s agricultural heartland. By the second half of the century, fatal humid heatwaves are forecast to strike the region repeatedly, effectively making China’s breadbasket uninhabitable.

No human has yet had to experience such heat-death conditions, but it can only be a matter of time. In Bandar Mahshahr (Iran) temperatures of 46°C combined with 50 percent humidity, brought conditions, in July 2015, to the very limit of survivability. Perhaps 2019 will be the year the threshold is breached, bringing a first taste of what it will be like when parts of the world that brought forth and moulded our species finally become off limits to us.

(1) http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/8/e1603322

(2) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-05252-y

Bill McGuire is Professor Emeritus of Geophysical & Climate Hazards at UCL and author of Waking the Giant: How a Changing Climate Triggers Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Volcanic Eruptions. He was a contributor to the IPCC 2012 report on Climate Change & Extreme Events and Disasters.

Focus Australia – Serious climate issues down under

By Kate Goldstone

For generations, people from all over the world have made their way to Australia on holiday to enjoy its wonderful warm, sunny weather and extraordinary natural environments. Plenty of families moved there permanently, seduced by the climate. Now New South Wales, the country’s most heavily populated state, is officially experiencing total drought, and Australia’s legendary hot dry weather is fast becoming more or a problem than a pleasure (1).

Australia’s Bureau of Meteorology defines drought as “rainfall over a three-month period being in the lowest decile of what has been recorded for that region in the past ” (2). The current very dry winter down under is intensifying the ‘worst drought in living memory’ in some areas of eastern Australia, with New South Wales, the provider of a quarter of the country’s agriculture, now 100% in drought. 23% of New South Wales is in a state of ‘intense drought’ and the rest is either in drought or drought-affected. And in the news’ grim wake there’s a growing litany of horror in the form of failing crops, dying livestock, and severe water shortages.

Some farmers are being forced to pay as much as a hundred dollars for a truck of hay to keep their beasts alive. Some are selling off their animals in despair. Others are digging in to wait for the rain… if it ever comes. In the Australian countryside farming suicide rates have always been higher than average. Now they’re around 40% higher than urban suicide rates, according to the national mental health charity Sane Australia (3).

The blame lies at the feet of climate change

Of course Australia’s weather is naturally varied year-on-year, and is affected by multiple complicated factors. Like much of the world’s weather it’s a chaotic system, and hard to predict. But all the same, a growing number of scientists are laying the blame at the feet of climate change. The Australian government itself admits the risk of severe drought could be more likely thanks to human-created global warming. As the Prime Minister PM Turnbull acknowledged, he doesn’t know many people in New South Wales who don’t think the climate is getting drier and rainfall becoming more volatile.

Government relief payments do nothing to fix the underlying issue

The Australian government is already paying out annual relief of as much as A$16,000 to affected farmers. The Prime Minister has just promised extra payments of up to A$12,000, in a move that has been criticised for being too little, too late. In a nation where drought isn’t a stranger at the best of times, it’s clear those in power are worried. But like most governments, they’re not doing anywhere near enough on the people’s behalf to mitigate climate change. Emergency relief doesn’t contribute to the fight against global warming, it merely papers over the cracks.

Australia is at more risk of runaway climate change than most

Worse still, The Guardian (4) reports that climate change could affect Australia more than any other continent. A science agency and Bureau of Meteorology report says they expect temperatures to rise as much as 5.1C in Australia by the year 2090. Scientists have long predicted that a 4C rise would be catastrophic, and that makes a hike of more than 5C downright terrifying. Unless action is taken to dramatically slash greenhouse gas emissions right now, officials say there’s a ‘very high confidence’ that temperatures will continue to rise steeply across Australia throughout the 21st century. Let things slide any further and the Australian government’s lack of real action could see the worst case 5C scenario become a reality.

How high temperatures affect humans

High temperatures affect more than agriculture, of course. If you’ve ever suffered through an exceptionally hot summer’s day you’ll know how nasty and uncomfortable it can be. The human body has an internal temperature of around 37C, and it dislikes being any hotter. Prolonged exposure to heat and humidity can easily kill you. If it doesn’t you’ll suffer muscle cramps because you’re dried out, short of vital electrolytes, and salt-deprived. If you’re not used to high temperatures you can suffer heat edema, where your hands and ankles swell up like balloons when your poor blood vessels dilate in an effort to radiate heat away. If you see little prickly red spots on your skin, it’s a heat rash caused by blocked sweat pores. If you stop sweating altogether, it’s time to worry – you’re on the road to potentially fatal heat stroke. When you heat up to more than 40C and lose consciousness, you’re in real trouble.

Extreme heat also results in dizziness, nausea, fainting, hallucinations, and something called heat syncope, where you get a temporary drop in the blood flow to your brain because you’ve lost so much fluid. Vomiting, diarrhoea and palpitations also reveal your body is not at all happy. No wonder, in summer 2003, an estimated 70,000 people died in the great European heatwave, which saw temperatures soaring to record levels for weeks on end.

All this happens to humans… and to our fellow creatures, who also suffer and die when temperatures exceed the usual maximum. Australia’s precious Great Barrier Reef, for example, is dying fast, being bleached to death thanks to rising sea temperatures. And once it goes, that’s that – it’s gone. Half a million years of growth, and we destroy it within a few decades. It’s shameful.

No continent is an island

The thing is, no continent is an island. Climate change is global. No one country is protected from it, no one country can make it go away. If Australia doesn’t act fast enough on climate change, the USA will ultimately suffer. If the USA doesn’t act fast enough Europe will suffer. If the EU doesn’t act now, China will suffer. And so on. We’re all interconnected, as are our economies. When one part of a global economy nosedives, so does the rest.

Australia might just be facing a perfect storm. When you blend dire predictions with government inaction and a climate that might already be changing off the scale, the future doesn’t look rosy.

It’s time to force the world’s governments to act on our behalves, to try to secure a decent future for our children. Will you go to jail for the cause, the greatest challenge mankind has had to face since we made our way out of Africa? Can you support the cause in any other way? If so, we’d love to hear from you.

Together we can make great things happen.

 

Sources:

(1) https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-australia-45107504

(2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drought_in_Australia

(3) https://www.sane.org/

(4) https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jan/26/climate-change-will-hit-australia-harder-than-rest-of-world-study-shows

(5) https://www.theweathernetwork.com/news/articles/five-awful-ways-extreme-heat-affects-the-human-body/51464